The Enclosure Movement!
Enclosure of fields intensified in the 18th century.
End to the open field system:
--landowners consolidated their scattered holdings into compact fields that were fenced.
--Common pasture lands were also enclosed.
Resulted in the commercialization of agriculture
--large landowners prospered and invested in technology (such as machinery, breeding, and cultivation methods.)
--Increased number of large and middle-sized farms
--Parliament passed over 3,000 enclosure acts in the late-18th century and early 19th century that benefited large landowners.
--Corn Laws in 1815 benefited landowners.
--High tariffs placed on foreign grain
--Drove up the price of English grain in England.
--Hurt the poor as they couldn't afford price increases for food.
--One of the most notorious examples of a law that benefited the wealthy at the expense of the English peasantry.